The History of Experimental Rocketry Organizations

Researched by Jeff Hove, Jan 2002-Nov 2002
With tremendous help from Bill Colburn and the aRocket community

Current U.S./World-wide Organizations:
Acronym Name Founded Location Founders Notes
Aero-Pac Association of Experimental Rocketry of the Pacific

ARSA(2) Amateur Rocket Society of America

John Wickman
CERTA Civilian Experimental Rocketry Test Area 2002
Mark Spute Developing a new launch site in Utah. 
CPSS Cal Poly Space Systems

EMRA Experimental Manned Rocketry Association of America

described by some as "Mixing rocketry and barnstorming"
EPRS Experimental Rocket Propulsion Society

Pierce Nichols Has popular mailing list.  Very active.  Developing several technologies for space flight.
ESS Experimental Spacecraft Society 

or rmr:
An amateur group whose purpose is to orbit a small (10" to 16")
 telescope for use by amateur astronomers. While not directly in the propulsion end of experimental rocketry, it is very much in
 the same philosophical vein. Director is Linda Kenny-Sloan who can be reached at:
                        Experimental Spacecraft Society
                        17701 South Avalon Blvd.
                        Carson, CA  90746
HPRS High Plains Rocket Society

John Wickman
IEAS International Experimental Aerospace Society 2001-
Carl Blood,
Bob Brashear,
Ray Calkins,
Jeff Hove
outgrowth of aRocket mailing list
IRS Independent Rocket Systems
San Gabriel Valley, CA Paul McQuown, Dave Griffith
MITRS MIT High Power Rocket Society

[Is this an outgrowth of the old MITRRS?]
MTA Mojave Test Area

built and run by RRS and PRS
NERO National Experimental Rocketry Organization

Ky Michaelson co-sponsor of BALLS launch.  No affiliation with Netherlands organization
PASA Pawnee Aerospace Sciences Association

Jim Amos
PRS Pacific Rocket Society late 1940's or early 50's? Los Angeles, CA
world-wide membership, international chapters
Edmund Sawyer,
Morgan Milleron
Flies at MTA along with RRS (is PRS a chapter of RRS?)
Unofficial altitude record with boosted dart to approx 280,000' w/IOS
   Per Jerry Irvine rmr post 1/22/94
PRS is a mostly liquid focused group and thus is far less active, but is also responsible for influence on more independent projects than any
other group.  Including projects in Austrailia, Finland, Mexico, and Southern California (2).  In addition they publish books and tapes on
liquid rockets which are highly recommended reading and viewing.
Members of PRS have been pyro-ops for Lucerne launches.
 An experimental rocket organization which experiments with amateur rockets both solid and liquid fueled, although mostly the latter. It is a very old organization by hobby standards with roots dating back to the '50s thus predating hobby rocketry in
 its current form. They launch in the Mojave Desert from facili-ties leased from the Reaction Research Society (q.v.). Their mailing address is:
                        Pacific Rocket Society
                        1825 Oxnard Blvd., Ste. 24
                        Oxnard, California 93030

From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:
The Pacific Rocket Society was formed by Edmund Sawyer (still kicking) to research liquid motors exclusively. They are also the amateur pioneers of hybrids; although GIRD launched a single hybrid, the PRS launched dozens using LOX and douglas fir, presto logs, cerasin wax/cotton mixure, and thiokol rubber. It ran through the 60's and then was reinstated as originally chartered by the Morgan family.


PRS, NSS on rmr:
History of PRS NSS collaboration on Amspace SpaceFarer X-80 & proposal for funding projects

PSAS Portland State Aerospace Society

        AESS Rocket Project
 goal is to develop small sounding rockets, and the current project (LV2) is aimed at an altitude of 55,000 feet. They also have some impressive avionics capabilities.
RPM Rocket Propulsion of Memphis
Memphis, TN Glen May Rocket powered Canoe
RR Rocket Research

RRI Rocket Research Institute, Inc 1948- North of San Jose, CA
(Pleasant Hill?)
Chuck Piper, Ray Goodson, George James Descendent of SCRS/GRS/RRS  including some after-hours AeroJet employees
Currently owns the "Rocket Ranch" - Adobe Canyon Test Site
Described in

Per Jerry Irvine rmr post 1/22/94:
I dont have their addresses handy. It was started circa 1948, technically after the stated 1943 start date of RRS, but all three started about the same time and were incorporated and formalized at different times.

RRI has a non-commercial solid mix facility and launches at Smoke Creek, right next to Black Rock.

RRS(1) Reaction Research Society 1946-
Descendent of SCRS/GRS from 1943
HQ in CA
Chapter in Pennsylvania?
George James,
Robert DeVoe,
David Elliott, Carroll Evans, Jr.,
John Cipperly,
Walter Lee Rosenthal
contact: David Crisalli
  Official History:         Chrisali Dosa
      Ky says Jim Humphries was RRS Historian (deceased). Gary Rosenfield as a child used to push him around in a wheelchair.
  Had Northern California chapter run by Bill Colburn that disbanded. 
 Developed RRS Beta rocket with Zn/S "Micrograin" propellant, can get to 10,000'

      One of the oldest amateur rocketry organizations. Founded in 1943, members of this Southern California group investigate all
forms of reaction based vehicles: solid/liquid/hybrid. Their cur-rent very ambitious plans include orbiting the first *completely*
               amateur satellite with a vehicle based on the "10K" (10,000 lb
               thrust) LOX/Kerosene motor now in development.

               They have the decided advantage of *owning* their Mojave desert
               launch site which is adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base and thus
               protected by their "infinite" restricted airspace.  They lease
               the use of their launch facilities to the Pacific Rocket Society
               (q.v.) and welcome HPR fliers to come down and fly anything as
               big and high as they want as long as it's 1) prearranged and
               2) you play by *their* safety procedures. For more info there is
               a message on the Pacific Energy voice mail system which can be
               accessed after 6 PM (Pacific time) on weekdays and any time on
               weekends (213) 725-1139, ex 777. PR co-ordinator: Niels Anderson.
               Mailing address is:
                        Reaction Research Society
                        P.O. Box 90306 World Way Postal Center
                        Los Angeles, California 90009

From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:
The RRS primarily worked with Micrograin, developed by George James and "Chatterly?) (I
am not working from notes and do not guarantee the accuracy of this narrative) They redid
the mail rocket concept and launched mail rockets through the 1990's under the auspices of
the Rocket Research Institute, formed by George when he took leave from the RRS. The RRS also flew a
hydrogen peroxide vehicle.

SCARS Southern California Amateur Rocketry Society

Matt Hornbeek
SORAC SubOrbital Rocket Amateur Class rebuilt in 1995
Bill Colburn Another web site for SORAC esp launch reports.
Bill is resurrecting the spirit of RMRS and project HiJump
WVSOAR West Virginia Society of Amateur Rocketry

Current Organizations Outside of the U.S.:

NEAR Norwegian Experimental Amateur Rocketry Norway NEAR, Norwegian Experimental Amateur Rocketry, , Jan-Erik Rønningen

CAR Canadian Association of Rocketry Tataryn Toronto  (do they do EX?)    Great History page
NERO Netherlands Experimental Rocketry Organization Netherlands or
No affiliation with U.S. NERO
GRETTSS Groupe de Recherche et d'Etudes des Techniques Spatiales de Strasbourg
GRETTSS, Groupe de Recherche et d'Etudes des Techniques Spatiales de Strasbourg,
DERA Deutsche Experimental Raketen Arbeitsgruppe Germany DERA, Deutsche Experimental Raketen Arbeitsgruppe,, Stefan Wimmer
RSF Rocket and Space Foundation Netherlands
     An organization in Holland that supports both model and amateur rocketry and amateur astronomy. It is currently trying to arrange a Get Away Special container for a space shuttle flight. The Secretary is Marcel Verhoef, Delft University of Technology, who can be reached at:
                        Rocket and Space Foundation
                        P.O. Box 314
                        3350 AH Papendrecht
                        The Netherlands
ASRI Australian Space Research Institute Austrailia          AusRoc project
 Excellent web site.  Non-profit.  Clear mission statement.
DARK Danish Amateur Rocket Club Denmark

European rocket competition?  Aquajet?
MARS MARS Advanced Rocketry Society (in UK) UK
NAVRO The Dutch Amateur Rocketry Society Netherlands
STAAR The Scottish Rocket Programme Scottland
VRO/FRO Flemmish Rocket Organization Belgium Book about them titled 'Paisley Rocketeers'.  Founded in Scotland by the Stuart brothers in around 1920.
SPL Swiss Propulsion Laboratory Switzerland Have a nice liquid motor "ignition torch".  Very nice test stand.
TAAR Tecnologia Aerospacial AmateuR Spain
SAMRA Swedish Rocketry Association Sweden
SERF Southern England Rocket Fliers UK
UKRA United Kingdom Rocketry Association UK
RRG Rocket Research Göttingen - Liq. Prop Germany

Past Foreign EX:
Acronym Name Founded Location Members Notes
ARS Australian Rocket Society 1930s ??? Queensland Australia Allen H. Young From email from John Stuart:
experimental rocket launches held in Queensland Australia from 1934 to 1936.  I believe that Allen H. Young was one of the people involved. The 
Australian Rocket Society produced the stamps used on the rocket mail. 
While I have spent quite some time searching the web I can only find information on the mail carried by the rockets and nothing about the rockets themselves.
BIS British Interplanetry Society

 From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:
  The British Interplanetry Society tried some Black Powder rockets early on and then
  decided to become an organizatiosn of rocket theorists. Surely some of their members were in the
  British rocketry community eventually. Arthur C. Clark, of course, is one of their most famous members.

From von Braun:
  The BIS cancelled their journal to devote more funds to projects, but membership quickly dropped.  Journal is more important.


-  9/21/33 Soviet Union
Merged with GIRD to become RNII
GIRD Central Committee for the Study of Rocket Propulsion  - 9/21/33 MosGIRD in Moskow,
LenGIRD in Leningrad,
Soviet Union
S.P. Korolev and M.K. Tikhonravov Developed GIRD-9 world's first hybrid,
GIRD-10 liquid
Merged with GDL to form RNII

From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:
  GIRD was almost an identical case to the VfR. Korolev and friends eventually worked for
  the military and were also responsible not only for space vehicles but for MAN IN SPACE.

GRS (see VfR/GRS)

RNII Scientific Research Institute for Jet Propulsion  9/21/33- Soviet Union
Merger of GDL & GIRD
O.N.E.R.A. French aeronautical agency

Did hybrid testing in 56-67 by M. Barriere and A. and H. Moutet

worked with sugar motors in late 70's (per Richard Nakka)

VfR/GRS Vercin fur Raumschiffart, (German Society for Space Travel,
or German Interplanetary Society,  or German Rocket Society) 
 -1934  Reinickendorf, Germany
(near Berlin)
Herman Oberth, Pres
but maybe not founder

Secretary ???

Werner Von Braun

absorbed by German Army.
     flew lots of rocketmail for funding.  Very nice "Baustein Cards"
        Von Braun
German Army
  Air force:
  From "200 Miles Up" by Vaeth p 143:
  German Me-163 powered by Walter HWK 109-500 motor burning hypogolic propellants:
    C-stoff = Hydrazine Hydrate, Methyl Alcohol, potassium cuprocyanide, and water
    T-stoff = concentrated Hyrdrogen Peroxide
  Penemunde group (previously at Kummersdorf):
     Tech Director Werner Von Braun, Director Walter Dornburger
  (Info from "200 Miles Up" - Vaeth:
  A-1 4' long 330lb, 1933, gyro stabilized, LOX/Ethyl Alcohol, 650lb thrust
  A-2 1934, gyro stabilized, LOX/Ethyl Alcohol, 650lb thrust, 1.5miles altitude
    similar to Goddard's rockets of the time
  A-3 21', 2' dia, 1650lbs, 1937, 3,000lb thrust, molybdenum control vanes (melted)
  A-5 (next after A-3) 2000lb, 10/1939, used graphite control vanes, increased diameter,
better controls, parachute recovery. To test guidance/control system for A4. 5mi alt on 1st flight, 7mi vert/11mi horiz.
  A-4/V2 46' long, 5'5" dia, 8800lb empty, 28000lb loaded. Operational in 1944.  1650lb
warhead. 10,800lb LOX, 8,500lb Ethyl Alcohol (from potatos), 55,000lb thrust, 3600mph (=1mi/sec). 465hp
(fuel 270hp 300psi, LOX 190hp)Turbo pump weighed 330lbs, powered by 370lb H202 & 29lb
sodium permanganate, 3800 rpm.  4900F combustion temp.  140C skin temps
10/3/42 A4 to 60 miles first real successful flight.
From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:
  The VfR was very productive; quickly moved from "powder" rockets to liquids. Was shut
  down by the Military which desired that all rocketry be done by the military at which point they  recruited the best and willing of the VfR (von Braun et al) Here amateur activity progressed in a
  continuous fashion from primitive experiments to space vehicles.
WARR Wissenschaftliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Raketentechnik und Raumfahrt '68-'74 ?? Technical University of Munich. student group under the direction of
R. Schmucker and
W. Schauer
hybrids '68-'74


Past U.S. Organizations

AARS American Amateur Rocket Society

Bill Bullock
  I fired that year at Kilgore Jr. College at Kilgore,  Texas (1958), and again at Louisiana Polytechnic Institute (now Louisiana  Tech) at Ruston, Louisiana, (1959-'63),  configured that way. I was President of the American Amateur Rocket Society chapter at both places and  founded both clubs.   [Bill thinks he is the "last member standing"]
  (From aRocket:
             From: "Bill Bullock" bpbullock_at_LARIBAY.NET
             Subject:  Re: [AR] Clubs
             Sent: 9/10/2001 1:10:21 PM
              As far as I know the last active chapter of the American Amateur Rocket Society was disbanded in May of 1964. The Amateur Rocketry Association ceased to exist as such in early-1963. I believe they were the last of the national organizations which promoted the building and  launching of Experimental Class amateur-built rockets in the U.S.
ARS(1) American Rocket Society

Was AIS then Became AIAA and JPL and RMI.
        (affilliated with RRS, PRS, and RRI in the 40's - per Jerry Irvine)
ARS American Rocket Society
From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:

The American Rocket Society started out as the BIS [AIS?] with Black Powder rockets, then built some liquid rockets. A group broke off from the society and formed Reaction Motors Incorporated which was the first commercial liquid rocket motor plant in the USA. They did the power plant for the Bell XS-1 (X-1) which is another story. The ARS grew to become AIAA and buried its amateur beginnings. My father-in-law, Howard Seifert, was President in 1951 and wrote an editorial in the mag about young experimenters called "Ardent Youth". He was absolutley against un-supervised experimentation, but suggested that professionals find a way to aid young speople in their rocket oriented interests. The negative side of his editorial was the flag most often waved by the ARS (negating their own humble origins)

  American Rocket Society, which was founded in 1930 as the American Interplanetary Society. Years later G. Edward
  Pendray, one of the founders of the society, wrote plaintively: "When Goddard in his desert fastness in New Mexico proved uncommunicative, those of us who wanted to do our part in launching the space age turned to what appeared the next best source of light: the Verein fur Raumschiffahrt -the German Interplanetary Society-in Berlin."17

ARS(2) Austin Rocket Society 1957-59 Austin, MN
Minnesota based in Austin High School, launched a mouse
    TRA-SMN was researching this too:
  1957 - ABC’s TV’s Huntley Brinkley filmed the launch of 35 rockets made by students from Brownsdale and Austin Pacelli. The group was known as the Austin  Rocket Society. They launched a 4 ft. ten in. rocket with a fifty cent anesthetized mouse as a passenger. The rocket reached an altitude of 1,642 ft with a velocity of 221 mph. The mouse did not survive and was buried on the launching site. The launch was widely covered and the humane society pressed charges. The  students had to appear in Mower County Court. The charges were, however, dropped.
     Life Magazine 4/28/58
     NY Times 1/6/58
     Time Magazine 1/13/58
     Brownsville Daily Herald
ARSA(1) Astronautical Research Society of America of  1950s Bronx, N. Y.
Referred to in Brinley's Rocket Manual for Amateurs.
ABMA Army Ballistic Missile Agency

Von Braun's US site.  Developed Redstone & Jupiter and Saturn V
BARS Bricelyn Amateur Rocket Society 1961-64 Bricelyn, MN  Duane Hove, Dale Hugo, Kieth Hovland, Paul Hove, Claire Hovland High School students in a very small farming town on the Minnesota/Iowa border.
Duane and Dale were the most active.  They designed the rockets based on info from a book.
Homemade Black Powder propellant.  Chemicals bought by Duane's older brother Paul who was by then a college student at UofMN.
Rockets made from seamless Stainless Steel pipes from closed Creamery.
Launched from a piece of angle iron.  Initially used fuse to light rockets.
A bust disk contained the BP propellent.
Many of the rockets got so hot they warped the pipe or burned holes through sides. 
Keith built the parachute deployment device.  Initiated by sulfuric acid droped from a gamma-shaped glass tube onto a cast waffer of ??? to ignite a cherry bomb.
Launched a mouse inside of  a wooden nose cone.  The mouse did not survive.  Jeff Hove (IEAS secretary) has the nosecone and parachute from the mouse flight and video transfered from a movie of the flight.
Built a large rocket that they took to South Dakota to launch but could not locate a good site before high winds cancelled attempt.
Duane went on to become an Aeronautical Engineer and consulted on many military aerospace projects.
Paul graduated with EE degree and became a Field Engineer for Univac.  In the early 70's introduced his son Jeff to model rockets.
Paul made his BAR flight in 2001.
Keith joined the Air Force and served in Thailand during the Vietnam war.
BCMA Big Creek Missile Agency
Coalwood, WV Homer Hickam, Quentin Wilson, Roy Lee Cooke, Jimmy Carroll, Sherman Siers, Billy Rose  "Cape Coalwood", 
Described in book Rocketboys and movie October Skies
BRS Black Rock Society 1992-?
Tom Blazanin
   Story on
or rmr:
    An amateur rocketry organization founded by Tom Blazanin to cater to those who find HPR confining :-) It is a serious organization for those dedicated individuals who wish to explore rocketry in a semiprofessional vein. It is open to all forms of reactive propulsion: solid, liquid and hybrid. The mailing address is:
                        Route 1, Box 100
                        Loving, TX  76460
                        Phone: 817-378-2590
                        FAX: 817-378-2593

CRS(1) Cleveland Rocket Society
Cleveland, OH
   ref to mag article:

From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:
  The Cleveland Rocket Society was formed around the ideas of one man, a Romanian IIRC, who desired to build regeneratively coold rocket motors. There is an excellent display at the Cleveland museum of their original motors and the test stand. I met John xxx who was the draftsman/designed for these motors and told of the ups and downs of this group. They were at first given access  to a plot of land on a large estate and were later denied its use etc.

CRS(2) California Rocket Society 1940's

Founded by a few ARS members
   4/11/43, built and tested first Hybrid motor in US (O2 and Carbon)
CRS(3) Claremont Rocket Society 1964 California Jerry Irvine, ??? White,  
DRS Detriot Rocket Society late 1940's

ERS Experimental Research Society late 1940's

GALCIT RRG Guggenheim Aeronautical Labratory at California Institute of Technology  Rocket Research Group '35-'39 Pasedena, CA Theodore Von Karman, Frank J. Malina, then later John W. Parsons and Edward S. Forman (ARS members)
   then Weld Arnold who helped finance and photograph and A.M.O. Smith and Hsue Shen Tsien
Prompted by a lecture by  William Bollay
See: Malina's memoirs
          Note: documents that made up their "Bible"
        Developed GALCIT propellant, JETO, and WAC-Corporal, the first upper atmosphere sounding rocket in 1945.
ACJPRP,('39-44), Air Corps Jet Propulsion Research Project
Goverment funding for GALCIT RRG to develop JATO
Spawned ORDCIT, JPL, and Aerojet Corp.

  the California Institute of Technology Rocket Research Project, established in 1936 by Theodore von Karman, director of the institute's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, tried to persuade Goddard to join forces with them. When it was stipulated that a partnership would require mutual disclosure of ideas and projects, Goddard shied away.

GRS Glendale Rocket Society 3/17/43-3/31/46

Started as SCRS, became RRS
IRS Intermountain Rocket Society late 1940's

JPL Jet Propulsion Labratory 1944-> Pasedena, CA
CalTech group fromed from GALCIT RRG/ACJPRP
        JPL History (scroll down to 1940, Note that Parsons name is not mentioned)
        Spawned Aerojet.  One of the founders, Jack Parsons died in a strange explosion
LRS Lakeside Rocket Society 1957-1960 Seattle, WA

MITRRS Massachusets Institute of Technology Rocket Research Society

ORDCIT Ordinance California Institute of Technology
Pasedena, CA
Army support for GALCIT RRG's development of JATO
PAS Philadelphia Astronautical Society

RRS(2) Richland Rocket Society
Richland, Washington
Referred to in Binley's Rocket Manual for Amateurs
RMRG Rocket Motor Research Group

Started as RMRS, Bill Colburn, became SORAC?
RMRS(1) Rocket Motor Research Society 1947-1965 Watsonville California Jim Boudreau, Bill Colburn, Forrest Eaker, Justin Pope, Herb Praskey, Bill Reynolds, Dirk Thysse, Bob Welsh Started as Tracer Club, became RMRG
        Bill Colburn (inventor of caramel candy propellant)
        Flew 1200 "TF-1" rockets with sugar propellant
        Project HiJump, which became SORAC
RMRS (from,1282,38821,00.html)
            a dozen-member group formed in Hollister in 1947, the same year the
            Gypsy Jokers motorcycle gang showed up for the Fourth of July and
            provided the raw material for the Marlon Brando movie The Wild One.

            The society developed its own solid propellant formulas, Colburn says, including a potassium nitrate and sugar mixture
            still widely used by amateur rocketeers.
            In 1956, one year before Sputnik went aloft, the club began a research effort called Project Hijump, which was a
            citizen effort to launch a satellite.
            "It was going to be a multistage solid-fuel rocket," Colburn recalls. "We had a little 1-kilogram satellite we were going
            to put up -- nothing more than a bundle of electronic components about the size of your fist."

            The group's efforts continued through the mid-60s but came to nothing, and members went about their lives.
            "We were in our 20s then, and we kind of had families and kids and drifted away, you know how that happens,"
            Colburn says.
From email from Bill Colburn 12/31/01:
  The Rocket Motor Rsearch Society is the source of the KNO3/Sugar propellant and its
  various manifestations (dry, wet, melted and cast). Also did Micrograin, bi-liquids, ram-jets,
  and the first hypergolic hybrid in June, 1951. Also ran through the 60's culminating in a project
  called HIJUMP which was to be the first orbital attempt by amateurs. Military, babies, and jobs
  got the better of that one as the members drifted away.

RMRS(2) Reaction Missile Research Society late 1940's

(Per Chuck Piper)
SCRS Southern California Rocket Society 1/6/43-3/17/43 Glendale, California George James,
John Cipperly, Charles Payne 
Inspired by CRS, but not affiliated. 
Became GRS and later RRS
Invented Zinc/Sulfur mircrograin propellent
SOAR Society of Applied Rocketry ~1960 Massachusetts

   was very active in launching rocket mail covers in Maine 
      (Not to be confused with SoAR)
SRS(or SWRS?) Southwestern Rocket Society

Tracer Club Tracer Club 1944-47 Watsonville California Barney Bernstein, Bill Colburn, Gary Sheldon Became RMRS

WCRC West Covina Rocket Club

started by Dane Boles of Quest?? (per Jerry I. on  rmr
WPRS White Plains Rocket Society 1950s White Plains, N. Y.
Referred to in Binley's Rocket Manual for Amateurs

Rocketry Books that Influenced Experimental Rocketry (see my Palm memo Books-Rocketry-EX):
  - Tsilkovsky
  - Oberth
   - Goddard
  "Rocket Building for Modellers" - George James
  "Rocket Propulsion Elements" - Sutton
  "Handbook of Amateur Rocketry" - Capt. Bertrand Brinley
   Teleflite Manual
  "How to Make Amateur Rockets" - John Wickman, CP-Technologies
  "Experimental Composite Propellants" - by Terry McCreary

Influential events:
  First liquid rocket in 1936(?)
  WAC Corporal - JPL/AeroJet
  Vanguard - Naval Research Laboratory
  Rock-a-Chute by Orvile Carlisle, later turned into a business with G. Harry Stine, which stimulated Vern Estes to start Estes Industries
  NFPA & attempts to shut down EX
  High Power Rocketry & TRA
  TRA adopts EX
  aRocket newsgroup
  CATS Prize
  TRA drops support for AN Composite

History of Amateur Experimental Rocketry:

History of Rocketry (in general): (Excellent History of solid/composite motors, esp GALCIT) (Truax & Goddard - Navy)  part of series space-01.pdf through (NASA's Marshall Space Center) has a summary of early years
List of history books from
History of Rocketry and Space Travel - Von Braun/Ordway: Excellent chronology of very early years, esp Germany groups
Magazine & Newspaper clippings about Orville Carlisle provided by Willard Johnson
200 Miles Up - Vaeth, history of Sounding Rockets
Note: "Rocket Mail" contains a lot of history.  Find on eBay or stamp collector's catalog of rocket mail.

Other lists of Organizations:
See Ky's list at
Also see all the CATS prize and X-Prize contender sites
Also Water Rocket pages (need to create PW)
rmr archives
Google rmr archives
Foreign links
Big links list:
Check Richard Nakka's link list also

Look for the "Cato Chronicles" by John Cato, esp "LDRS 14 Agenda II Items" (is this part of Other Orgs Lists?)

Project-Related Orgs (i.e. CATS or X-Prize)

CATS Prize:
    HARC,     Rockoon attempt launched from barge in Gulf of Mexico.  Rocket stuck in tower.
    JP Aerospace, Rockoon from Black Rock
    IOS,Interorbital Systems, Roderick & Randa Milliron
   CSXT, Civilian Space eXploration Team, Ky Michaelson
          Sub-orbital attempts.  SpaceShot 2000 disassembled at mach 4.
          "Primera" SpaceShot 9/2002 exploded 3 seconds after lift-off

CST, Canyon Space Team, Rich Harman, president,  X-Prize hopefuls

X-Prize Teams (officially registered):
 Advent Launch Services - Advent
 AeroAstro, LLC - PA-X2
 Armadillo Aerospace -
 Mr. Mickey L. Badgero - Lucky Seven
 Bristol Spaceplanes, Ltd. - Ascender
 Canadian Arrow - Canadian Arrow
 Cerulean Freight Forwarding Company - Kitten
 CosmopolisXXI - CosmopolisXXI
 The daVinci Project - daVinci
 Discraft Corporation - The Space Tourist
 Dr. Graham Dorrington - Green Arrow
 Earth Space Transport System Corporation
 FunTech Systems - Aurora
 Kelly Space and Technology - Eclipse Astroliner
 Lone Star Space Access Corporation - Cosmos Mariner
 Pablo De Leon & Associates - Gauchito
 Pan Aero, Inc. - XVan2001
 Pioneer Rocketplane, Inc. - Pathfinder
 Scaled Composites, Inc. - Proteus, Burt Rutan (also see Xcor EZ-Rocket)
 Starchaser Industries - Thunderbird, Steve Bennett

TRA-EX Chapters:
TRA Orem Pennsylvania Blazanin Tindell Rogers Kelly
  TRA mismanagement accusations (also see any post by Jerry Irvine):
POTROCS, Pan Handle of Texas Rocketry Society,, ,
AERO-PAC (see above)
LIARS, Long Island Advanced Rocketry Society,
LTR, Lucerne Test Range,
     started by Jerry Irvine?
DARS, Dallas Area Rocket Society (do EX?)
NAPAS, North American Propulsion and Aerospace Society,

Aerojet (1942->
     Formed by ARS/GALCIT/JPL people
     founded in 1942 by Parsons-Forman-Malina, along with von Karman, Andrew Haley, and Martin Summerfield.
             The purpose had been to sell JATO (jet-assisted takeoff) units to the armed forces which was subsequently acquired by the General Tire and Rubber Company and has recently become the Aerojet-General Corporation
     John "Jack" W. Parsons died in a strange explosion
     Developed Polairis ICBM motor
Reaction Motors, Inc
    Built liquid motors for Bell X-1 (the XLR-11 which was also used in the early X-15 testing),
    Viking sounding rocket
    In 1958, merged with Thiokol  and became a division which then developed the XLR-99 for the X-15
     In 1958, Thiokol merged with Reaction Motors, Inc
     Started from JPL's idea for composite solid motors with polysulfide "Thiokol" binder/fuel
     Developed motor for Hercules upper stage, Minuteman 1st stage,  Shuttle SRBs, Hercules
     Made double-base solid motors: Vanguard 3rd stage, Minuteman 3rd stage
     Now makes Shuttle SRBs
Rocketdyne (early 60's)
     First to use CTPB binder
     TheirAR2-3 engine was used on the NF-104 aerospace trainer.
ASP - American Space and Propulsion, , spinoff of SORAC, developed coaxial hybrid (still active???)
IOS, Inter Orbital Systems, (a commercial offshoot of PRS)
       Partner in 280k boosted dart
R.A.T.T. works, Rockets All The Time,  Dave Griffith
Aerotech, Gary Rosenfeld
Propulsion Technologies, makes 38mm hybrid similar to Rattworks
CTI, Cessaroni Technologies, Inc. , Anthony Cessaroni
      Makers of Pro38 composite motors (were named ProPulsion-38)
      (bought Hypertek from Korey Kline)
JP Aerospace,, John Powell and David Brock
      (idea high school in the late 1970s)
Aerocon,, Bill Colburn, Bob Fortune
CP Technologies,, John Wickman, sells course on composite (mostly AN/Mg) motors & rockets,
AmRoC, American Rocket Company   ('85-'94) did hybrid testing.
EAC, Environmental Aeroscience Corporation, Miami, Korey Kline
GCRC, Grand Central Rocket Company, built Vanguard 3rd stage ABL X-248 Altair (still active???)
MPL, Microjet Propulsion Lab (AN JetEx replacement)
RSII, Rocket Science Institute, Inc.,,
     Works with MPL to sponsor news group:
USR, US Rockets, Jerry Irvine (supposedly sold to someone else)
Ellis Mountain,    HPR Motor makers
ASRM, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (NASA contractor)
Orbital Systems,   Developers of Pegasus rocket launched from L-1011
XCOR EZ-Rocket
Starflight Technologies [SST], a privately owned company, developed a series of experimental rockets, aimed at fulfilling a market niche for sounding rockets.
Their first rocket, Starflight1, reached a suborbital altitude of 10,000 feet in 1986. The second launch was a two-stage vehicle in early 1987. Their newest model is the Orion, a 300 pound rocket capable of lifting 200 pounds to suborbital altitudes. It was scheduled for its initial flight in April, 1991.

Private Companies researching EX:
OPL, Ozark Propulsion Labs, Darren Wright  (active on aRocket)
Armadillo Aerospace, John Carmack  (active on aRocket and ERPS mailing list)

Hobby Motor Makers:
Estes Got contract from MMI when Carlisle couldn't keep up with demand.  Vern built Mabel
Apogee (on hold) Hand builds contest motors

??? (new place that sells everything)

Richard Nakka's site,, mostly about Kn/S solid motors

Past Companies:
RMI, "Reaction Motors, Incorporated", 1941-58, merged with Thiokol (became RMD)
  Lovell Lawrence, Jr., John Shesta, James Hart Wyld and Hugh Franklin Pierce (from ARS)
  Created motors for X-15
RMD, Reaction Motors Division of Thiokol after merger with RMI
RPCA, Rocket Plane Corporation of America, Fred Kessler (founder), 1936
UTC, (foreign?), Hybrid research in 60's & 70s
        1970 Burning test of a UTC upper stage engine, Thrust
             50.000N, propellants: lithium and FLOX, lithium hydride and
             FLOX, polybutadiene and FLOX

Past Hobby Motor Makers:
Propulsion Dynamics
FSI, Flight Systems Inc., made some of the first good F motors
Whole series of Jerry Irvine companies.
Centuri (bought by Estes)
  Coaster was a company that made a couple of large black powder motors they called "Atlas" and "Hercules".   This company merged with Centuri in 67 or 68 and the line's name was changed to "Mini-Max" and the designations were changed to standard NAR-speak.  Rocket Development Corporation made a composite motor called the Enerjet-8, and some larger motors for university research rockets.  This company merged with Centuri in 1969 as a division called Enerjet, and made composite motors "easily" available for the first time.  Centuri dropped the Mini-Max line a couple of years later, and the Enerjet line a couple of years after that.  Chas Russell describes history    Ron Green describes history

AVI, was run by Mike Bergenske who'd developed and obtained the MPC engine
    making machinery when MPC dropped rockets.
MMI, Model Missiles Incorporated, 1958 (57?)
     See section 5.17
     the original rocket company - started by Orville Carlisle and G. Harry Stine
     to mfg & sell "Rock-A-Chute" patented by Carlisle
     First made 13mm motors.
     Then contracted to Estes, then a fireworks maker, to develop 18mm BP motors
SSRS/Crown,  early composite hobby rocket motor maker
Composite Dynamics, early composite hobby rocket motor maker
Composite Distribution, early composite hobby rocket motor maker
PlasmaJet, early composite hobby rocket motor maker

Coaster, made Atlas and Hercules motors.
  Merged with Centuri in 67-68 to become Mini-Max motors
  Ron Green describes history  Chas Russell describes history

RDC, Rocket Development Corp.  Irv Wait in Indiana
      Made EnerJet motors.
      First commercial composite motor EnerJet-8
      later merged with Centuri in '69 to become Enerjet division
  Ron Green describes history  Chas Russell describes history

MrED,  Greg Dyben
   RocketFlite motors, esp the F50 SilverStreak

Vulcan, Scott ???
    Early maker of mid-power motors before the rules allowed them
    Pressed BP?
Truly Recyclable Motors, Frank Kosdon
Canaroc (made AP motors with a reputation of forming long stalagtites)
APS, Advanced Propulsion Systems
        Their Blue Lightning propellant was awesome!
        Ron Urinsco and Mike Dunkel as partners in APS. I think they were very close to being fully open for business,
               when they decided that all the regulation imposed by the government made it a no go.
        the few motors I saw them launch as demos were really nice. Also, the hardware was probably the best designed stuff I have seen.
   Per John Wickman: "Besides the government regulations there was also a patent infringement issue between APS and Aerotech.
       Aerotech has a patent on the  reloadable motor with ejection charge. APS refused to get a patent license from Aerotech. At LDRS (Colorado - approx. 1997) prior to the BoD meeting, Dunkel told Aerotech to bring it on. I think Aerotech did.

From ROL Info-Central: Propulsion
"In the later part of the 1960's, Irv Wait of Rocket Development Company introduced the world's first composite model rocket motors using modern high energy propellant with a plastic binder called "EnerJets".
Later a subsidiary of Centuri Engineering Company, the EnerJets sold well until around 1974 when Centuri shut the production line down because of a variety of problems, from low profit margins to high manufacturing costs. Four years later, in 1978, Small Systems Sounding Rockets, later known as Crown Rocket Technology, and in 1979, Composite Dynamics,  re-introduced the concept of high-energy composite model rocket motors. SSRS used a 1.125" diameter paper phenolic motor casings with machined graphite nozzles while Composite Dynamics utilized filament-wound fiberglass motor casings and cast ceramic nozzles. Both companies used HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) fuel binder, at the time a breakthrough in model rocket motors.

                     Composite Dynamics raised the state-of-the-art even further with its first motor, an E20. It had the same physical dimensions as an Estes D-12,
                     yet it produced two and one half times as much power, a total of 40 newton-seconds. Since that time, other manufacturers have come on the scene to deliver today's composite propellant motors, both in single use and reloadable motor technologies. By clicking on the menu to the left, you will be able to explore various types of motor-related areas, which include photos,  graphics and text to explain the specifics of that technology."

Past US Non-EX clubs:
EAC, Estes Aerospace Club,

Minnesota: See my web page on Minnesota Rocketry

Current Minnesota EX Clubs: (see above tables for details of these)
  IEAS MinnDak Chapter
  Tripoli Southern Minnesota

Past Minnesota EX Clubs: (see above tables for details of these)

Current Minnesota Non-EX Clubs:
  Tripoli Minnesota

Past Minnesota non-EX clubs:
North Star (Minn NAR 1965)
Zenith     (Minn NAR 1965)
CMAR, Central Minnesota Association of Rocketry, NAR
   Precursor to MASA though no direct link
SOBCA, Scientists of Battle Creek Area, (unaffiliated)  Jeff Hove Pres
The Rocketeers (unaffiliated) There was a club in the SE metro area just before MASA called The
  Rocketeers. Club president was named Chris ? and he lived in Prescott, WI.
  When he went to the Air Force Academy the club folded. I was the "Senior
  Advisor", and he and I went before the City of Cottage Grove board to get
  special permission to fly at the city parks for two summers. They had a
  rule on the books saying that there would be no "untethered" models of any
  kind allowed in the city parks. Russ, Mark and some other MASA folks were
  at some of our launches and came to a couple of our meetings. I saw Chris
  about 4 years ago at the Chanhasen dinner theatre and he was doing well,
  but didn't know about MASA. I gave him my e-mail address at the time, but
  he never wrote. That's the extent of what I know. Hope it helps. (It was
  never a NAR section.)
One of the early NARAM's (back in the 60's) was held in Minnesota.  Mankato (or Rochester?)

Individuals:  See WhoZat
Bob Truax, Navy
      Developed hypergolic fuels for restartable JATO
      Evil Kenevil rocket builder
Ky Michaelson, Founder of NERO, record holder of many speed records
     H2O2 Dragracing car builder, general tinkerer
     Founded CSXT team to attempt CATS prize civilian sub-orbital rocket in 2000
     Tried again in 2002
     Judge on a 2000 Junkyard Wars episode
Bill Colburn, RMRS co-founder, inventor of Sugar Propellants, RRS-NC founder, MicroGrain
     Co-inventor of U/C Hybrid fill/fire system
David? Urbanski,
     Co-inventor of U/C Hybrid fill/fire system
Gary Rosenfield, founded AeroTech  (flew w/Jerry, etc at Lucern as a kid)
Dave Griffith, founded RATTworks
Jerry Irvine, founded USR & others  had an AmRock mailing list for a while
   Early developer of high power rocket motors. Organized launches in Lucern dry lake in California in 1980s.
   Most prolific poster to rec.models.rockets newsgroup
   Adopted particular interpretation of regulations that seem to be letting him operate motor business, but TRA and NAR refuse to recognize his products.
   Disputes w/Frank Kosdon & Gary Rosenfield over rights to reloadable motor technology
   Early disputes with NAR over introduction of High Power Rocketry (NAR eventually adopted it)
   Disputes with TRA that led to his ousting.  2001 application for renewal denied.
   Extremely outspoken about TRA, Bruce Kelly, Chuck Rogers, etc
John Cato, past TRA Motor Testing Chair who resigned in disgust
   Wrote prolifically on rmr about perceived problems in TRA mgmt
   Alleged TRA motor testing fraud to NFPA committee.
Bob Kaplow, invented "Kaplow Klips" motor retention system (and won't let you forget it! :)
   Past TRA member ousted for outspokeness on rmr about TRA mgmt problems
   Prolific rec.models.rockets newsgroup poster, often critical of TRA
Frank Kosdon, Kosdon motors & others.
   Maker of some of the earliest commercially avialable large HPR motors
   Business disputes with Jerry Irvine.
   In 2002 ran for board & president election of TRA
    Disputes w/Irvine over rights to reloadable motor technology
    Flew Potassium Perchlorate motors while at MIT in late 60's and again at BALLS 11 in 2002.
Korey Kline, founded HyperTek, EAC
     One of the most responsible for introduction of Hybrid motors to HPR
     Hyperion is altitude record holder
Chuck Rogers, past TRA Pres,
   disputes w/Irvine over Lucerne waivers & ownership of software they co-developed
Bruce Kelly, past TRA Pres.  HPR Magazine owner/editor.
Bruce Lee, current TRA Treasurer.  Team captain on a 2000 Junkyard Wars episode.  CSXT member.
Mark Bundick, current NAR Pres
    Widely accepted as being accessible, fair, and honest even with those who disagree.
     Concerned about experimental rocketry damaging the reputation of Model Rocketry, but open to concept if can be shown to be safe.
Ray Calkins, started aRocket mailing list
Matt Steele and ??? Pearson in hosting the first LDRSs
Bob Fortune, Aerocon Systems, hybrids
   Runs rmr DesCon
David Crisalli, current pres of RRS
Carl A. Blood, founder of IEAS (with Bob Brashear & aRocket mailing list folks)
John Wickman, CP Tecnhologies, HPRS, proponent of AN/Mg composite fuels.
   Sells "How to Make Amateur Rockets" course.  Founded ASRS
Orvile Carsile
   Credited as Inventor & patent holder of Rock-A-Chute, the first model rocket and modern BP motors
   [Note: George James founder of RRI, actually attempted to patent a similar device earlier than Carlisle but his application was rejected.]
   With G. Harry Stine, founded MMI and produced motors, but later lost contract to Estes
G. Harry Stine - Father of model rocketry and NAR founder, wrote Handbook of Model Rocketry
      a range safety officer at White Sands Missile Range, sci fi writer
      Co-Founder (w/Orvile Carlisle) of Model Missiles, Inc the first model rocket company
      Fired from Martin for predicting Russian Sputnik would beat U.S. to orbit
Constantine Tsiolkovsky, Russian space travel theorist in late 1800's and author of "Exploration of Space by Means of Rocket"
Esnault-Pelterie, French
Herman Oberth, German "Rocket into Interplanetary Space".  Wrote to Goddard, but goddard wasn't interested in cooperating.
   designed rocket for 1929 movie "Girl in the Moon" for Fritz Lang, but not used.
Sänger, Austrian,
Valie'?, Max, German VfR member who built liquid motor for race car.  Exploded & died.
Robert H. Goddard, American pioneer of liquid rockets.  214 patents (see list at bottom)
     Aunt Emma's? farm in Auburn.
     lox & ??? duraluminum motor.
      "A method for reaching extreme altitudes" 1919/20
      1926 first liquid fueled rocket flight (then got small grant from Smithsonian)
      Flew at Roswell: in 1930s.  Grant from Guggenheim (Lindburg helped arange grant).
      But did not share his research and was surpassed by GALCIT & Truax who each developed better JATO units than his.
      Dec 1930 First rocket at Roswell was was  11'  33lb empty liquid.  Used fuel pump?  2000' 500mph
            Spent 2 more yrs.  Making rockets stable & engines run when so cold.  Then grant ran out.
      1937 "L" series of larger rockets. N2 gas pressurization was too heavy & chambers burned through)  Liq N2 could be smaller tank/
         Mar 26, '37   9000'.  The retractable air vanes/paddles above fins.  Parachute.
        "P" series used turbo-pumps 18"dia 240lbs + barograph.  Gyros. Vanes plus thrust paddles.
                 1st flight burst tanks & crashed.
       5/8/41 last rocket. 250'? then crashed.
       Summer 41 Navy hired Goddard to make JATO  '42 Naval Acadamy and found Truax already working but Goddard would't talk.
       Used on PBY Catalina 9/42, burned through and damaged planes tail.
Willy Ley, researcher, author, rocket historian
       Wrote " Les Fusées Volantes Météorologiques "
           published in October 1936 by Willy Ley and Herbert Schaefer in L’Aerophile 18.
Wernher Von Braun, 1912- V2 project technical leader, VfR
    essay about rockets touring the solar system while in grade-school
Walter Dornburger, German V2 project leader - Von Braun's boss.  Was Army ballistics officer.
    Rudolf Navel? asked Army for funding.  Von Braun & Navel did demo but Army didn't like.  Dornberger liked von Braun though.
   Rummensdorf, then Penemunde
Theodore Von Karman, GALCIT professor,  Co-founder of JPL
     Developed equations that proved that restricted chamber solid motors were possible
        when the burning area of propellant is kept in ratio to nozzel area.
     Chosen over all other living scientists to receive the first National Medal of Science from President John Kennedy in 1963
John "Jack" W. Parsons, early ARS member, co-founder of JPL & Aerojet
      Invented KN/asphalt, KP/asphalt(GALCIT-61c) and AP composite propellants
      Also RFNA oxidizer (from 1937 accidental damage to metal after experiment)
      Occultist, tried to help Isreal develop missiles,Died in mysterious explosion
        while packing chemicals to move to Mexico:
        (I left off at chapter 22:
      Summary and Theory that released convict bomber killed Parsons:
Qian Xuesen (Tsien Hsue-shen) Chinese guy, one of JPL founders.  After US persecution, he returned to China and
      developed their nuclear missile program
Frank J. Malina, ARS, GALCIT, co-founder of JPL and AeroJet
Vern Estes, Formed Estes and made BP motors using machine named Mabel
Greg Dyben, RocketFlite motor designer and Magnelite ignitor kits.
   Father Jerry has patent on nichrome ignitors?
Bill Wood first proposed using nitrous oxide in hybrid and liquid rockets.
Dr. Harold W. Ritchey, ARS, Thiokol "Father of Composite Fuels".
     see obit in my message from Dr. Manzara on 3/4/02:

On-line Forums:
DEC ROCKETRY.NOTES conference 14-Feb-1986 - 1998 Jim Flis from rec.models.rockets:
Subject:     Re: NAR and HPR: the beginnings
    Date:    30 Nov 2002 
For me, the pre-RMR center of the universe was the internal DEC
ROCKETRY.NOTES conference started by Jim Flis back in 14-Feb-1986 and seems to have finally died in 1998. In 1989-90 it was more active than RMR. It saw over 1300 posts in its first year, and unlike RMR, being a client/server design, old information was forever online for newbies. And there were no flame wars. I really mis those days...

        Bob Kaplow      NAR # 18L 

Compuserve Modelnet 1984 Bill Westfield  Date:              Thu, 21 Feb 2002 20:13:49 -0500
From:              Roy Green <roygreen@ >

Back then the activity was on Compuserve's Modelnet, hosted by Doug Pratt, and the rocketry section of it hosted by Bob (Indoor High Power NOW!) Hegwood assisted by Will Safford.

The remnants of that list are still on Compuserve, and I think can be viewed in read-only mode (if you aren't a compuserve member).  But the last couple of times I looked at it, it was averaging maybe a message every other day.
Roy Green, Atlanta
NAR 12605 (
SoAR 007 (
Subject:              Re: When rmr started?
        Date:              07 Mar 2002 16:47:29 -0800
       From:              Bill Westfield <billw@>

    Thanks a lot, Carl. I started ModelNet on CompuServe back in 1984, before the Web even existed.

Rec.models.rockets newsgroup Nov 1989 Richard.Michael.Jungclas Subject:              Re: When rmr started?
   Date:              21 Feb 2002 23:13:03 GMT
   From:              rjungcla@ (Richard.Michael.Jungclas)

The vote to start rmr was taken in November 1989.
I sent in the request to administrator to start the rmr newsgroup the Monday or Tuesday after Thanksgiving 1989.

R. Michael Jungclas
Richard.Michael.Jungclas (Michael) -- 5ESS Signaling Services
1200 E Warrenville Road,PO Box 3045, ILI800 1F-424,  Naperville, IL U S
(630)-979-4571  jungclas@ 

AmRocNet mailing list
Jerry Irvine
aRocket mailing list
Ray Calkins



Mailing list for ERPS
WAMEX 11/14/01 Carl Blood Mailing list for IEAS


Causes for Groups Disbanding:
1. Core people move on to other things:
    a. Students graduate and move away.
    b. The single defining Project is completed or abandoned an no follow-on project takes over
    c. Closes due to lack of activity/volunteers (particularly lack of new leaders to take over)
2. Evolve/Merge/Absorbed into different group(s)
3. (in case of chapters) Lack of support from parent organization
4. Disagreement on vision/mission/goals leads to split or disband
5. Disagreements over ownership of property
6. Personality conflicts

Other problems:
Accusations of conflict of interest with commercial vendors as officers or board
Private individuals profiting from club business (i.e. magazine publishing)
Conversion of club assetts to individuals at other than fair market price
Claims of lying, cheating, stealing by officers
Officers/Directors applying pressure to RSOs or certifying officials to have their projects or products approved when don't meet requirements.
rigged elections (using proxy votes, or miscounting)
arbitrary ejection of members
charging high fees for chapters to hold major organization-wide launches
exclusive sub-contractor/vendor selection for services w/o proper competition
   (where officers have stake in contracted companies, esp. if undisclosed)
poor relations with other organizations
allowing activities that don't meet own Safety Codes
allowing activities that are disallowed by charter
not embracing new technology/trend that causes membership split

Need a straight-forward way to remove officers/board members who violate rules.  They should not become permanently entrenched through inertia and member apathy



Past publications of print:

Carsile Rock-a-chute: then enter 2841084
Gun Launched Rocket Flare:
Goddard 214 patents:
  2,397,657 Control Mechanism for Rocket Aparatus (complex electical & plumbing)
  1, Liquid Fuel Gun Rocket
  1,103,503 Rocket Apparatus (machine-gun style insertion of propellant charges)
  1,102,653 Rocket Apparatus 1914 (Dual stage solid propelled rocket w/spin motors but
                              isolated instrument payload does not spin)
Max Faget, Caldwell Johnson, et al
  3,093,346 Mercury Space Capsule

Advanced AN Propellant
Major Inventions through the 19th Century

1232 China    Stabilizing Stick
1400 Jean Froissart    Launch Tubes
1650 K. Siemienowicz   Design
1750 Capt. DeBoer & William Hale Metal Vanes
1780 Haider Ali   Metal Chambers
1795 William Congreve  Specifications *
1845 Christian Schoenbein  Nitrocellulose
1885 Paul Vielle   Single Base
1888 Alfred Nobel   Double Base
1890 Frederick A. Abel  Cordite
1891 Herman Ganswindt  Dynamite Propulsion

Early Modern Solid Rocketry Experiments

1891 Hermann Ganswindt Use of Dynamite to attain High Altitudes
1910 French Military  Nitrocellulose as a Propellant for Military Rockets
1930 Max Valler  Solid Rockets used to Power Automobiles

Rocketry in Ukraine:
Re: Rocketry in Ukraine
       Date: Tue, 04 Sep 2001 20:08:32 +0100
      From:  "Taras N. Tataryn" <arg@  >
The National Rocket Ass'n (Federatsija raketnoho modelizmu Ukrainy) is based
in eastern Ukraine (Shostka, Sumska oblast') near Russia and about 5 hours
east of Kyiv (Ukrainian spelling opposite  Russian spelling "Kiev").
Zhytomyr and Rivno are in western Ukraine, very nationalistic.

Yurij (Jurij) Hapon is in Shostka, and then there is Aleksandr Lipitskyj in
Kyiv (he is a partner in a hobby store attempt) and was also Team Mgr of the
Ukr Team in Florida, he speaks good English, Hapon somewhat.

U.S. Non-EX Rocketry Organizations:
(List all NAR,TRA,CAR,UKRA, etc Chapters here)

NAR National Association of Rocketry 1958-> G. Harry Stine Current Pres. Mark Bundick
   NAR's stand on EX and more
   Great history of how/why TRA & NAR helped create NFPA 1122 & 1127
IAR Independent Association Of Rocketry
Dennis Bishop, 
Bill Baldwin
  IAR FAQ:   low/mid/hpr.  Want a subgroup for EX but none so far.  Founded by Dennis Bishop same guy as  SIAR
SIAR Starlords International Association of Rocketry
Dennis Bishop Sci Fi model rocketry
NARHAM History
CAP Civil Air Patrol

offers badge for rocketry
BSA Boy Scouts of America

rocket merit badge
MDARS Mojave Desert Advanced Rocket Society

SCRS(2) Southern California Rocket Society

SoAR Southern Area Rocketry

Atlanta GA, NAR Chapter

International non-EX Rocketry Organizations:
CRS, Canadian Rocket Society, ,  or  (Marcus Leech was a member in 70's)
ARS, Australian Rocket Society, founded in Nhulunbuy, Australia Jan 1, 2002 by Carol Dodd and with the assistance of the Canadian Rocket Society

History of Model Rocketry

George James
Orvile Carlisle  - Include my articles & Photos

Carsile Rock-a-chute Patent: then enter 2841084
G. Harry Stine - partnered with Carlisle to market Rock-a-chute
Vern Estes - When Carlisle couldn't keep up motor production, they turned to Vern, a fireworks maker.
MPC, Cox
Halvorson, RocketVision, TLP,US Rockets,

History of hobby rocket motors:
By George Gassaway sec 5.17

History OF High Power Rocketry

from rec.models.rockets (Need to ask Bob K. for permission to post this):
Subject:              Re: NAR and HPR: the beginnings
        Date:              30 Nov 2002 20:28:50 -0600
       From:              kaplow_r@   (Bob Kaplow)
 Organization:              Oh my God! They've Killed Alpha!
 Newsgroups:              rec.models.rockets

In article <as8lk901hlk@>, "shockwaveriderz"
<shockwaveriderz@> writes:
> Would people in the know, who where around at the time care to elaborate
> on the how and why NAR became involved with HPR...from a historical point of
> view......I am particularily interested in what the topics of
> discussion/debate were vis-a-vis motor and weight limits, why NAR decided to
> get into HPR, who was pro/con, etc....

For the NAR, it was a multi step process:

1) No such thing. Back in 1958 everyone thought a B was HPR! But it didn't
take that long to get to F motors.

2) Denial. Probably peaked with "who flew the G" in the early 80s. Exceed
the limits of the NAR safety code and you're subject to being kicked out of
the NAR.

3) The Barber commission that investigated limited expansion beyond the
traditional one pound limit. Since no one thought this would be safe up
front, the scope of the investigation was up to 1500g rockets and 125g
propellant. No increased safety risks were found. This led to G motors, and
what we today call LMR. Still, exceed the limits of the NAR safety code and
you're subject to being kicked out of the NAR.

4) A lawsuit against the FAA for ignoring our requested changes expanding
the definition of a model rocket per #2. This process started in 1985-6 and
took until FAR 101.22 came about in late 1994 (overlapping the next few
item). It wasn't what we'd asked for, but it did enventually let us fly LMR
without a waiver.

[At this point in the timeline HPR advocates take over a Pittsburgh science
club and become the Tripoli Rocketry Association]

5) The infamous 3/48 rule. Summer 1987, NARAM-29. One of the few votes by
the membership that actually required a careful count of hands on each side
of the question to determine the result. NAR members could now fly HPR
(elsewhere) without getting kicked out. MR and HPR events had to be
seperated by 3 miles if concurrent, or 48 hours if at the same site. You
couldn't sanction an NAR contest Saturday and then an HPR launch Sunday on
the same field.

[Of course this rule was stupid. How does an NAR club host a launch, and
still control what goes on at that site for the next 48 hours, or for that
matter know what has gone on for the previous 48 hours. One HPR launch off
hours at the NARAM site would make the whole NARAM illegal under NAR rules.
Which happened at NARAM-32.]

6) Summer 1989, NARAM-31: HPR is revisited at the association meeting. I
still recall G Harry giving a speech that what he created back inthe 50s,
was not the "national association of one pound rocketry" or <mumble> or
<mumble> but the National Association of Rocketry. He probably got a
standing ovation. It launched another study, similar to the Barber
commission, but much broader in scope.

7) NAR finally adopts HPR in early 1991. Interim certification was by power
class. You had to fly a G class rocket to get H certification, H for I, I
for J, etc. Interim topped out at K. But the 3/48 rule was history, so you
could have an NAR competition and a TRA HPR launch on the same site at the
same time.

[There were a couple really stupid rules in the interim safety code. AS RSO
for NARAM-33 I told President Miller I would STRICTLY enforce them at NARAM
if they were not changed. That would mean ZERO HPR flying all week. I got
them changed in time for NARAM.]

8) In spring of 1991, TRA threatens to take over NAR to keep their HPR
monopoly. Plans were made to run a slate of TRA members for the NAR board.
After some negotiation, a truce and mutual cooperation were declared between
NAR and TRA. Each organization agrees to recognize the others certified
members (still in effect) and motors (TRA no longer recognizes NAR Kosdon

Note: Ray Dunnakin later the same day posted:
"No, it was to prevent a NAR HPR monopoly. NAR was trying to get NFPA rules
written so that the NAR would be the only recognized high power authority."

9) First NAR HPR launch was at NARAM-33 UNDER the ORD TCA, with a 1700'
waiver (NARAM was planned before HPR was adopted, and added in the last
couple months)

10) NAR and TRA work to create NFPA 1127, which becomes the basis for the
HPR safety code of both groups. NAR goes from motor class certification to 3
levels, and TRA goes from blanket certification to the same 3 levels. HPR
under NAR now goes from H through N.

Does that answer your question?

        Bob Kaplow      NAR # 18L

More TRA History:
  Dangerous Dave still hosting Tripoli Founder (and 2nd President) Ed Tindell's little story about 'TRA, IRA and the FBI'
  Also, the Cato Chronicles (rmr '96)
From rmr '92 by Irvine:
 The enemy of his enemy (Miller, Bunny) was his friend. Pearson/Steele/SNOAR were in the anti Bunny/Miller/Stine wars and Irvine/Kline/Rosenfield/CRm were in the MRT (over 1, pound over F, NAR tolerance) wars.  Rosenfield never put his balls on the line.  In hindsight we won at great cost (NAR expulsion of Kline and Irvine) and they lost (Bunny, Stine and Miller are still all powerful).

Cato's Lessons for Organizations:  [Jeff Hove's summary of "The Cato Chronicles"]
Ethics committee of members.
AOI & bylaws consistent. don't let board take all power, members must be able to amend both and have some method of ousting corrupt leaders/board.
RSO's & organizers must have right to set more restrictive safety code for their specific launch
Motor Testing Committee must be free of board political pressure to approve motors of board members or influential members
When leaders make mistakes, they should quickly admit & correct problem, not coverup & attack messenger
Appreciate and accept help from volunteers.  Remember that most people doing work for the organization are unpaid and even paying from their own pockets.
An NFP corp must have research and education as its mission and actually do those activities
RSO's must be imune from political pressure to accept any particular person's projects.

My observations:
  Maybe a formal dispute resolution process that keeps problems from becomming rmr fodder, flame wars, and character assassination.


Space Exploration Advocacy Groups: (Imagine the possibilities if these folks all got together!)
AAS American Astronautical Society
AIA Aerospace Industries Association, represents major aerospace companies to promote aerospace activities  including educational outreach
ASE Association of Space Explorers,  founded 1985
CATS Prize Civilian Access To Space, sponsored by SFF, cash prize for putting 2kg payload into space (ended unclaimed)
CSFS Calgary Space Frontier Society
CSS Canadian Space Society 
EAA Experimental Airplane Association
EMRA Experimental Manned Rocketry Association
FAI Federation Aeronatic International, recognizes aviation records,
FINDS Foundation for the International Nongovernmental Development of Space,  based in Washington, D.C.    Co-Sponsored CATS prize with SFF
IAF International Astronautics Federation,  Associated with IAA, Organizes International Astronautical Congress (IAC)
IAA International Academy of Astronautics,  Associated with IAF
L-5 Lagrange Point 5, one of the equilibrium points in the gravity of Earth, Sun, and Moon where a space station could be positioned (was ???)  (became ???)
Mars Society advocates the exploration and settlement of Mars
NRC National Rocket Club (later changed name to NSC)
      began sponsoring the Robert H. Goddard Annual Memorial Dinner in 1958
      Read NASA's History entry for NRC
NSC National Space Club (was NRC)
   from Read NASA's History entry for NSC :
  "The National Space Club originally was organized as the National Rocket Club in October
          1957 and was founded to stimulate the exchange of ideas and information about rocketry and
          astronautics, and to promote the recognition of America's achievements in aerospace."
NSS National Space Society
ProSpace The Citizens' Space Lobby
SAS Society of Amateur Scientists, Society of Amateur Scientists
SAS(2) Space Access Society,     Note: XCOR's Doug Jones is a member
SEDS Students for the Exploration and Development of Space, (started at Univ. of Arizona)
SFF Space Frontier Foundation, ,(offered the CATS Prize)
TLR TransLunar Research
WCSAR Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, 
    University of Wisconsin professor Marc Anderson and colleagues
    Made an air filter
X-Prize $10million prize for 3 passengers to space twice in same vehicle in two weeks